The ancient settlement of the Aral Sea region
Kuyuk Kala fortress is situated on the south bank of densely overgrown ancient delta of Aral. This settlement has rounded shape, measuring 500 x 700 meters. Area of the town is surrounded by a shaft that is the result of erosion of the walls of mud brick, and it rises above the surrounding terrain to a height of about 2 meters.
The walls of citadel were built of mud square bricks, ranging in size between 28 x 28 and 40 x 40 centimeters. Predominant dimensions were 33 x 33 and 35 x 35 inches. Fortress had a very distinctive layout. On the periphery of the square there was surrounding corridor with width of 1.5 meters.
The square was divided by diagonally running street. From it in different directions and at different angles curves depart lanes dividing the entire area of the citadel of different irregular shape and size of the building, in turn broken walls, and typically two bricks per square room.
On the surface of the indoor as on the site and in the citadel goes cultural layer, a large diversity of pottery, fragments of copper items and animal bones poor preservation, mainly sheep and goats, but also across the bones and skulls of horses and camels. Abundant ceramic material produced on the site, gives a very vivid and original picture.
Here was found a rough plastic ceramics, richly decorated with relief ornament, often known by the Don mounds of mid I millennium BC. It was consisting mainly vessel herringbone pattern, closely resembling the early medieval ornaments of Turkic tribes of Mongolia and Central Asia. Prototypes of these patterns were found even in the monuments of Mongolia dating I BC.
The archaeologists discovered picture of a beautiful female face has generated a lot of mysteries and questions. Intensive research of historical monuments of Aral Sea region began few years ago. According to the results of previous excavations, as well as ancient and medieval written sources, scientists have come to believe that the Aral Sea region is one of the nodes of ethno genesis of people lived here in ancient times. It became the basis for the formation of the Karakalpak as a nation.
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