Histoire de Andijan
Origin of the name of Andijan city
There are various attributions of the city origin and its name. In one of them it is asserted that the city bore the name of the daughter of Khan Afrasiab - Adizhan. In other legends it is told that the first part of the word – “Andi” - means the name of the city’s founder, and the second part – “zhan” means “soul”.
There are other assumptions. So, in the medieval highway "Hududal-ollel" ("Borders of the World") Andukan is mentioned. Scientists unanimously identify ancient Andukan with Andijan. "A Brief History of the Kakand Khanate" by V.P. Nalivkin tells that the name Andijan came from the Uzbek tribe “Andi” that once settled in this region.
History of Andijan in chronological order
Various legends narrate us that Andijan was founded on the point of caravanserais.
In the I century Andijan was part of the Kushan Khanate. During the subdual of Andijan by the Arab conquerors, the city was a trade point of the Silk Road.
Andijan entered the Samanid state in the 9-10 centuries.
During the reign of Amir Timur (the 14th century), Andijan experienced a rapid growth in all branches. In the 15th century Zahiriddin Babur became the ruler. The house of Great Babur has been preserved until today in the city of Andijan.
In the 16th century, the city was subjugated by the Sheibanids, and later it became part of the Kokand Khanate.
In October 1875 Andijan was invaded by the troops of General A. Trotsky. In January 1876 Andijan was occupied by the army of General M. Skobelev and entered the Russian Empire
After the accession of the Fergana Valley, Russian settlements began to appear on the Andijan territory. The residential buildings of Andijan of the colonial period are most often one-story apartment houses made of burnt bricks, prefabricated and profitable houses.
Banks, trade establishments were built. A guest yard, one-story building of a hospital, a city school were also built.
The Soviet period brought a new trend in architecture and the life of the Andijan history. In 1941 the city became the administrative center of the newly formed Andijan region. The city was growing. Here, machine-building plants, chemical enterprises, cotton-ginning plants began to function. Relatively warm winter favorably affects the development of such branches of agriculture as cotton growing, gardening, silkworm breeding, subtropical, stone and seed horticulture.
Andijan earthquake - devastating trace in the history of the city
The largest earthquake in the history of Andijan occurred in 1902. More than four thousand people died. In Andijan district and partially in Margilan district, about forty thousand buildings were destroyed. The earthquake was strong, so people could not keep on their feet. After the earthquake, Andijan also lost ancient architectural monuments and structures with a centuries-old history. Only state and residential buildings from burnt bricks in the new part of the city survived. In the old city of Andijan, the 32-meter-long Minaret of the 13th century of Andijan's main Friday Mosque was preserved and was not destroyed by the earthquake. The main mosque and the biggest Madrasa "Jami", which is currently the most beautiful architectural structure of Andijan and the entire memorial complex "Jami", survived.
Independence period: new staff and staple of Andijan history.
Over the past 20 years, the image of Andijan has changed significantly.
In the years of Uzbekistan's independence, Andijan with its suburbs was almost rebuilt. Historical buildings of a century ago were preserved and restored, new comfortable neighborhoods of the city with Eastern color and with new facilities in the Western style appeared. The old streets turned into wide avenues.
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