Uzbekistan leather processing
One of the most popular types of Uzbek arts and crafts today is embroidery leather processing. So Uzbek leather tannery was before.
The embroidery leather processing in Uzbekistan reached a high level in the distant past, when genuine leather goods - clothes, shoes, war, hunting and horse equipment, household utensils, travel things were a daily necessity for the farmer, townspeople, warrior and nomad. Masters-tanners skillfully owned various ways of dressing good-quality skins, knew the secrets of natural vegetable tanning and staining. That is why they got elastic beautiful skins. From donkey and horse skins Bukhara and Samarkand masters made famous turquoise-green shagreen; thin colored saffrons were made from skins of goats and sheep; dense colored yufts were made from cattle skins; and various rawhide types of suede - from sheep's skins. Embossing - the most complex and effective form of decoration, is associated with morocco and yuft leather. From these kinds of leather, the most diverse assortment of art objects was produced, ranging from purses, belts to large chests, suitcases. Cold stamping of the skin was applied by masters - experts in the manufacture of suitcases and chests.
Leather tanning in Uzbekistan in the old days
In Uzbekistan, the processing of leather has been greatly developed. Curriers (kunchi, charmgar) were in all cities, often inhabiting entire neighborhoods or even parts of the city. They settled somewhere on the outskirts of cities, near marshes or irrigation ditches, as the water was necessary for them when processing the skins.
Uzbek tanners were divided into specialties. The main specialty, which gave the greatest amount of production, was the dressing of the plantar skin. The firm tops of the shoes of black color were made from the goat leather; the skin, known as Bulgory (Bulgar) - black and red was made from the cowhide. Soft white husky for various household items - sacks and purses, were made from sheep leather. Also crude, but very strong suede of yellow color, designed for the top of the shoes, worn mainly by the poor peasants, was processed. The special Uzbek branch of leather production was the dressing of shagreen leather. Such leather, painted in green, was developed from the skin with a croup of donkey and horse.
The skins were treated in large soluble pits of boiler-shaped form and in small tanning beds covered with boards. Clay or board vats (yoms) were used for the tanning of small batches of leather. Scrapings were cleaned with primitive tools - plows and loins from the rib of the animal. A special knife with two handles scraped hair off the hides.
After the annexation of Central Asia to Russia, handicraft tanneries existed along with open Russian entrepreneurs in tanneries. These factories produced predominantly bulgarian-type leather.
Uzbek pictures on the leather: manufacturing techniques
Pictures on the leather are popular souvenirs in the production of folk crafts in Uzbekistan. Such products are made by many craftsmen in many cities of the country.
The quality strong leather stretches in a moistened form on a special frame. In the process of drying, the leather is squeezed a little, creating an even field for drawing. The primer is of great importance. In the manufacturing process of Uzbek pictures, the leather is impregnated with various chemicals, fats that can further affect the strength of the adhesion of the paint from the skin itself. Therefore, the primer is done carefully, in several layers and protects the paint from discoloration during the exposure to chemicals, and also avoids peeling paint.
Painting is possible with any colors - tempera, acrylic, oil, watercolor, gouache. The main theme is historical and tourist monuments of Uzbekistan. After all, such pictures on leather are purchased during Uzbek tour packages either by tourists or as a gift outside the country. There are small and quite large pictures. Such large products cannot be attributed to mass products, since the whole process takes a long time.
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