Concept of Uzbek traditional music and its history
It has happened that from time immemorial Uzbek music and song are accompanied by all the customs and rituals during the significant events from birth to the end.
In many Uzbek families, traditional ritual music, in particular, songs, filled with a special meaning, often originated from the era of pre-Islamic pagan culture, are carefully preserved and transferred.
The scientist Narshakhi in his work "History of Bukhara" noted the art of the Sogdians, who performed ancient ritual songs.
Of course, Uzbek music is not restricted to ceremonial and ritual songs. Until now, the ancient song genres "kushik", "lapar", "yalla", based on the poetic texts, performed accompanied by dances, are very popular.
The dastans - epic tales of lyrical and heroic content take a particular place in the Uzbek musical heritage.
Professionalism in the Uzbek musical art was constituted in early millennium AD. Musicians were famous for their high performing skills in a variety of genres.
Ancient Uzbek music, dances, musical instruments, performers penetrated into China, Korea, Japan as a dowry of royal brides, diplomatic offerings and other ways. Historical sources point out the popularity of Sogdian musicians in China, in particular, the unprecedented success of the orchestra from Ango (Bukhara) of the Sui dynasty in the 6th-7th centuries AD.
In the Dark Ages, the traditional music-vocal Uzbek genre "makom" was formed. It is rightly considered the pinnacle of Uzbek professional music of oral tradition. Probably, initially at certain times of the day, during the change of the guards, a special ritual music called "makom" was performed over the serf or city gates. Makom in Arabic means "location".
Uzbek musical culture originated in ancient times. This is evidenced by the monuments of material culture found on the territory of Uzbekistan. Uzbek music is closely connected with the musical culture of the whole Central Asia, but at the same time it is deeply original. In the musical heritage of the Uzbek people, as well as many other peoples of the East, there are two large strata - folklore (actually national arts) and the professional art of oral tradition (makoms and other products of developed form).
Styles of Uzbek folk music
In Uzbek folk and professional music, there are four basic local styles - Khorezm, Bukhara-Samarkand, Fergana-Tashkent, Surkhandarya-Kashkadarya. They were the result of ethnic community and similarity of social and economic living conditions of the population of certain regions (zones) of Uzbekistan in past centuries. Zones differ from each other in some features of everyday life, certain song and instrumental genres, musical instruments. For example, in the Bukhara and Khorezm zones makoms were widely used, while in the Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya regions, plays for dombra were darious and worthy, while in the Ferghana Valley there were various song genres with musical and poetic characteristics of the locality. The genre of katta-ashula, or panys-ashula, is exclusively of Fergana and Tashkent.
Uzbek music in antiquity
Professionalism in the musical art of Uzbekistan, as in other countries of Asia, was formed in ancient times. The famous carriers and creators of genres of professional monodies were outstanding musicians of the 6th-8th centuries. They are Barbat, Ibrahim al-Mausili, his son Iskhak al-Mausili and others. The theoretical foundations of traditional music were elucidated in treatises by scholars of the East - Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi (9-10 centuries), Abu Ali Hussein Ibn Sina (10-11 centuries), Ibn Zayla (11 century), Khorezmi (11 century), Safi-ad-din Urmavi (13 century), Mahmud ash-Shirazi (13 century), Abdul Qadira Maragi (14 century), Abdurahman Jami (15 century), And later Zaynula-Biddin Khusaini (16 century), Darvesh Ali Changi 16-17 centuries) and many other Central Asian anonymous authors of the 16-19 centuries.
The complexity of the genres and performing traditions of professional oral musical culture of Uzbekistan required from singers and instrumentalists many years of preparation. The musicians studied with famous masters, united in corporations, each of which had its own rules - risola. Everything was learned "from the voice". Note chronicle, known in middle centuries (on the tracts of Farabi, ash-Shirazi, etc.), in the musical practice was not applied. Even the Khorezm tablature (or notation), invented in the third quarter of the 19th century, came into use of only a narrow circle of musicians, although with the help of it makoms were written.
Modern Uzbek music
After joining Central Asia to Russia (1868), in spite of the colonial policy of the tsarist autocracy, the influence of progressive Russian science and culture penetrates into Uzbekistan. In the 80-90's. (and later) Russian societies of music lovers were established in Uzbek cities: the Tashkent Musical Society, the Tashkent Choral Society "Lira" (1898, under the guidance of the military bandmaster V. V. Leysek), the Margelan Musical Society (under the direction of D.I. Mikhailov), the Samarkand Musical Society (early 90s), etc. Concerts were organized by the newly created Russian collectives - symphony orchestra, chamber ensembles, opera companies, and barnstormers. An important role in the propaganda of music belonged to military brass bands that appeared everywhere. All this had a positive effect on the evolution of the Uzbek national musical culture.
The creative community of composers of different nationalities and different generations was especially pronounced during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45. Thereat the song genre came to the fore.
During the war years, the musical life of Uzbekistan was also strained, especially Tashkent, where people were evacuated from Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev and other cities.
A 3-year stay of Leningrad conservatory in Tashkent contributed the development of musical culture of the republic. Despite the difficulties of the military years the Musical-Drama Theater in Yangiyul (1941) and the music school in Samarkand (1944) were opened.
In the postwar years, special attention was paid to the further expansion of the network of musical and educational institutions, the creation and strengthening of performers and collectives. The orchestra of folk instruments, the Uzbek radio and television (1947), the choral chapel at the Uzbek Philharmonic were formed.
The new area for Uzbek composers and their music was the cinematography, the best samples of which are Burkhanov's music (to the films "Bai and the farmhand", "Avicenna", "The Road to the Horizon"); Akbarov's music (to the films "Hamza", "You are not an orphan"); Yudakov's music (to the film "Furkat"); Vilzanov's music (to the films "White, white storks", "One among the people"), etc.
Musical composers of Uzbekistan widely refer to the folklore of not only Uzbeks, but also other peoples living in the territory of the republic.
Make a trip to Uzbekistan and enjoy Uzbek music, its wonderful play and excellent performance of Uzbek musicians.
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